lecture we were privileged to listen to two weeks ago1 left
me feeling quite worried. It was, in spite of the apologies offered by
the lecturer, a scholarly presentation -- a credit to the speaker, to the
Museum Committee, to the Academy. But it worried me because it set a precedent
difficult to follow up in a discussion of Africa, a continent whose ancient
history, excepting perhaps that of the Egyptians, is shrouded in mystery,
being less documented than that of the Incas and as puzzling as the relics
of Stonehenge. Ancient history in sub-Sahara Africa is unwritten, save
in stone and symbol; forgotten, save in oral legend and tribal custom.
vitally appropriate question asked and answered by the last speaker was:
What use would it serve if we were to find the Ancient Word? And the answer:
It may help us to understand that state in the individual man's development
corresponding to the Ancient Church period. We will surely arrive at the
same kind of introspection in relation to the subject at hand : What use
could it serve for us to know who is (or was) the African referred to in
the Newest Word, who was said, in the words of Swedenborg, to be receiving
an interior revelation "at this day." Is there any possibility of even
approaching a discovery of the book he is said to have possessed? Where
is it? "In a certain region of Africa." 2 We are encouraged
to look for it, however, as is the case with the Ancient Word of Greater
us begin by reviewing a few of the key passages found in the Writings about
Africans are they who on our earth are of the genius in which are the angels
of the celestial kingdom. (SD 5518)
also possess a book which is the Word to them, but it is not like ours.
It is written in like manner by correspondences. It was written through
enlightened men: these are in Africa. (SD 5809)
best and wisest are in the interior of Africa, those who are not good are
near the Mediterranean Sea, near Egypt and the Cape of Good Hope. (LJ post.
the Africans are such, even in the world, therefore a revelation is taking
place with them at this day which, beginning from the middle, goes round
about, but not as far as the sea. (CLJ 76)
the Ancient and afterwards the Israelitic Word,] religious things emanated
to the Indias and their islands; and through Egypt and Ethiopia into the
kingdoms of Africa. (SS 117) [Special mention is made of the paradise,
the flood, the sacred fire, the four ages from the first golden to the
Africans are more receptive of the Heavenly Doctrines than most others
on this earth, because they readily accept the Doctrine of the Lord. They
have it as it were implanted in them that the Lord will appear altogether
as a Man. They are in the faculty of receiving truths of faith and especially
its goods, because they are of a celestial genius. (LJ post. 118)
are of course many, many passages on the Africans, of which these are only
a fairly representative selection.
a subject as immense and baffling as Africa, one can only aspire in a short
lecture to touch on some of the questions that stir our minds on hearing
the name of that tremendous fragment of the earth's crust.
origin of the name Africa is uncertain, Some relate it to an Arabic
word beginning with a laryngeal which appears as a "k" in the derivative
English word "kafir," Arabic meaning, "infidel." I prefer to think of Africa
as the paradisaical, gold-bearing "Ophir" of the Bible. Some have sought
to discover King Solomon's mines in Ethiopia, some in Zimbabwe, some in
the Mountains of the Moon -- the majestic Ruwenzori, still others in southern
Arabia. Like much else connected with Africa, its name is and will remain
flying from the Cape to Kinshasa, one may look down from time to time
see—scattered as if by Nature herself over the warm, smiling, rolling
and circles within circles: rondovals inside of round, hedged
on the slopes of round hills. Of all my experiences with Africa, this
impression stands out the most, as an uneraseable vision of the African
character in contrast with that of the European. For in flying from
Africa to Holland, descending over the Maas City and the polders to
there lay below a totally different picture: neat, square, flat fields;
straight roads, streets, canals and ditches; flawlessly lined-up
with scarcely a curve to be seen anywhere.
is a land without age; it defies historical analysis, evades geographical
delineation by its sheer vastness. Every attempt to formulate the intriguing
fascination, the elusive differentness of this unfathomable continent,
leaves one with a feeling of inadequacy. Those who have remained but a
few years, like those who have lived there all their lives, invariably become
deeply attached to it.
hidden in the shadow projected almost horizontally by the ancient cliffs
of the grand Rift Valley, as they block the last effulgence of the retreating
ball of fire that has rolled daily for aeons across this immense orange-brown
and dusty-green sameness—stands the solitary, waiting figure of the African
tribesman. His eyes are shining from the golden glow in which he pauses
silently to sensate the deepest pulse of creation's secret undercurrent.
In speaking, he will tell us nothing about it: only in dancing or drumming
at the bidding of a voice we cannot hear—that voice which tells him to
turn every straight line into a curve—every square house into a rondoval, every
thought into a smile, every minute into an hour, every human emotion into
carefree laughter. Welling up from the depths of the earth's volcanic core,
it compels him to convey to the world, through his stamping feet and hearty
laugh, that when man was formed from the dust of the earth, he was there,
and has lived to tell the story that has no words . . .
who is the African, and what is Africa?
of this profoundly beautiful, happy image, one may see Shaka murdering
a multitude of men and women out of grief at his mother's death. One may
witness thousands of Tutsis slaughtered by the Bahutu, floating down the
river until the crocodiles devour them. One may read of nuns raped and
beaten senseless as 25,000 whites flee the Congo in the months following
independence. Or one may think of the cannibalism practiced this very day
in the darkness of the Kivu forests.
see in every natural society a blend of states, bound together only by
common genius. In the most ideal society of this earth, there are both
good and evil. This must have been true even in the most exalted periods
of human existence.
groups, societies and nations can and do at given times become collectively
the carriers or representatives of good or evil. What is taught about wars
indicates that in the eyes of heaven, every war embodies a struggle between
good and evil.3 So our own country may have represented good
in one phase, and evil in another.
history is almost completely definable in terms of a constant series of
wars, struggles, between groups, tribes, nations, societies. Certainly
this is true of Africa. And speaking thus from the point of view of representation,
we can discern some of the issues, in hindsight, that have lain at the
heart of movement of peoples we call history.
Africa has been for countless ages, and is today, a stage of interaction
between many, many ethnic, racial, tribal and national groups. Its own
mythologies and legends bear witness to this. Prehistoric man in his earliest
form Australopithecus, was African. Almost the whole of the continent bears
the prints of the "little man"—the Pygmy, Hottentot, Bushman, Sahara dweller,
whose migrations follow a course from northeast toward west and southwest,
doubtlessly all relatives of the neolithic man of the Spanish Levant and
perhaps of the Atlas mountains and early Egypt. (cf. Plate 1, p. 261)
those times, the Sahara bloomed like Eden and the Mediterranean was a fresh-water
lake half its present size. Sinkings in the crust of the earth submerged
the eastern Mediterranean, putting towns and cities under the sea and leaving
graves on the southern coast of Crete, containing human remains buried
in an identical fashion as predynastic Egyptians in the Nile Delta and
Lybia, slanting at angles up to 30°.
followed wave upon wave of a people now called Bantu, dark as the Edomite
and traced by anthropologists to the cradle of civilization, the Fertile
Crescent. Hamitic and Semitic tribes swarmed along after them, some also
dark, darker than the Bantu such as Nilots, Masai, Tutsis. Berbers, Tuaregs,
Arabs, they came; and finally, arriving by sea routes from Europe, the
Dutch boers—farmers from the southern provinces of the Netherlands---and
English and French and Spanish explorers, exploiters; Portuguese and Belgian
colonizers and even American negro repatriates.
who is the African, and what is Africa?
the time of the writing of the most exhaustive Spiritual Diary passages
about the Africans4 most of these groups were already present
on the Dark Continent. The Cape Colony had rooted itself so firmly and
laid such inhesive claim to African soil that its descendents today face
an all-out struggle with the earlier occupants of southern Africa, the
Bantu people, many now citizens of modern, independent African states.
that very time, the Xhosa, having pressed southward as far as the Great
Fish River, confronted Dutch voortrekkers. Already, much earlier,
the Xhosa had driven the Bushmen and Hottentots westward and southward,
into the Karoo and Cape; and in the Drakensberg slopes and what later was
to become the Orange Free State, had miscegenated with them to form the
Basuto people. In the Cape, Riebeek made raids upon Bushmen and Hottentots,
whose concept of property and ownership differed diametrically from that
of the European, and boasted thousands of victims on each encounter.
this picture in mind, let us then look at the enigmatic number 5946 in
the Spiritual Diary about the Africans:
was also instructed where the best of them are, namely, at the sides toward
the sea, more than half of the region, with almost this form:
that the best of them are in the whole tract DE, but that the worse are
toward the Mediterranean Sea, H, also at the Cape of Good Hope F; so that
the kingdoms of the best are DE: but that they who are toward DB, which
is toward Asia, are not wise, and are infested by those who come thence,
because they speak things they do not perceive: similarly almost to C;
and those who are still worse are toward A, where Egypt is. They said that
in that large tract DE, all worship the Lord, and that they are instructed
by many who communicate with the angels of heaven; that the communication
is not by speech from angels but through interior perception; that these
are their instructors, whom they very well distinguish from others. They
also said that those from Europe are not admitted to them; and that if
they come thither and are not willing to serve, they are sent away from
there by a way at B, and are sold by them; thus they are safe from infestations.
When any come there from the Papal region, they claim that they are holy,
but soon they are examined and they perceive that they do not know, still
less perceive, anything of truth; wherefore, they are either not admitted,
or they are sent toward Asia, like the rest. Next they received the Word
and read it, and when they read, they at first perceived nothing holy,
afterwards something more and more holy, and then they gave it to their
instructors, who said that they had it, but had not divulged the fact.
The latter said that they had dictated it to men in Africa with whom they
have communication, according as the Lord leads.
from the map of the world published by Swedenborg in 1734 in the Principia,
on which the shape of Africa is represented in a form very close to that
which we now know it to possess, does it not seem strange that the Diary
map, drawn more than twenty years later, appears so sketchy and undeciferable?
What could be the reason for this? Had he forgotten the geography he had
known well twenty years earlier? Or was his hand and pen obeying the dictation
of a higher, deeper inspiration? Is the distortion of Africa Swedenborg's,
or is our scientific image of Africa distorted? Is it possible that this
sketch has a dimension no scientific or purely natural idea can comprehend
thought so transcends natural thinking that, although there is a correspondence,
yet the natural can never comprehend the spiritual. So neither can we comprehend
the Spiritual Diary from natural thought alone.
what spirits said to Swedenborg while he was writing:
said, for they are now speaking with me, that the things I have written
are so crude and gross, that they judge nothing interior can be understood
from these words or the mere sense of the words; I also perceived by a
spiritual idea that it was so, that they are very crude; so it was granted
me to reply that they are only vessels into which things purer, better
and more interior can be poured, just as a literal sense. . . . (SD 2185)
thought on Diary number 5946 with its shape of the African continent
does strongly suspect inaccuracy. I would interpose the suggestion that
into just that ultimate form and no other can purer, better and more interior
things be infused. This map must express a deep truth about Africa that
a conventional map could not possibly reflect.
Diary map, like a kind of caricature, accentuates certain features,
ignoring the conventional conception, making important aspects more visible
for those who are able to recognize from that outline the circumscribed
personality—yes, even like ancient cave paintings of human and animal figures,
which portray, beyond the form, the inner beauty of the affections they
represent: their life, movement and character.5 So one may see
only from inspired vision what the real message in this drawing is: a spiritual
representation. Wine is added to the water--sacred wine--that seems to distort
the scientific, but in reality brings it into true focus and perspective.
is said of those in Africa who have or had revelation from perception—notwithstanding
the mediation of spiritual instructors and a form of the Word whose very
existence was admitted only with apparent reluctance—would indicate a state
even more primitive than that of the Ancient Church, when books became
books as we now understand the term.
state of the late Most Ancient or early Ancient Church people would correspond
in the series of the individual to a state verging from infancy to childhood.
A child, or rather an infant, in this stage is learning from the senses
that have become operative. In linguistics, it is recognized that already
at this point the incipient human is absorbing his environment with a celerity
that is simply unbelievable. He learns, without knowing any words, the
whole level of semantic intonation of his mother tongue. He is also deeply
affected by every type of visual symbol such as the smile, the frown; colors,
patterns, odors, rhythms, are being imbibed as bases for future thought.
indications regarding those people of Africa we are considering are that
they retain something of the heavenly genius possessed by the Most Ancients
(see SD 5518) ; for the Ancients did not have perception, but conscience
(AC 371, 573).
use the word “heavenly” rather than that sophisticated Latinism “celestial,”
which lacks the substantive and substantial content of the Latin word coelestis.
I was once told by a New Church philosopher that as long as mere intellect
tends to dominate in the Church, translators will continue to employ the
word “celestial.” I am inclined
to agree, though it is doubtful whether the substance of heaven is as yet
or will soon be close enough at hand to bring about the much needed transition
from unconscious linguistic sophistry to the full use of the living English
return to the SpIritual Diary number, an intensive study of this
map and the related teachings arouses many questions and profers virtually
J.F. Buss interpretation of the Diary map seems to me to be justified
in the light of the geographical references stated in the number. This
would indicate the region DE as extending roughly from the Kalahari Desert,
through into the eastern Congo or western side of the Rift Valley. This
region is said to be occupied by the best. A (Egypt), H (toward the Mediterranean)
and F (at the Cape) are unfavorably qualified. DB, and almost to C, are
the not wise, infested by those who come from Asia.
is interesting to compare this sketch with an earlier portrayal of Africa
by Sylvannus drawn in A.D. 1511. He places the sources of the Nile and
Mountains of the Moon very low down, at a position close to that corresponding
with D on Swedenborg's map:
DB is toward Asia, D must indeed be about central in the modern chart of
southern Africa but southerly in respect to the great lakes. C, though
it may seem to be placed in the sea off East Africa, apparently refers
to the region near the Horn.
important question arises here: Does the line A-B to the right (originally
on top) represent the eastern coast, or is it the Nile? This is a fair
speculation, since (1) there is no continuous line from the Cape eastward
and northward; (2) the line in question commences at Egypt A, the location
of the Nile Delta; (3) the line A-B has two forks roughly corresponding
with those of the Nile shown on the Sylvannus map; and (4) C appears to
be placed in the ocean, while the passage refers to C as a region. All
this serves to illustrate the difficulty of forming positive conclusions
about this part of the map.
way this peripheral question is answered, the fact remains that DE must
stretch from central southern to central Africa. “Ad latus versus mare”
could refer to the Kalahari, very possibly indicated by the area shaded
by Swedenborg's quill: for this is toward the south, and it is toward the
sea, and it is more than half of the region. The "sides toward the sea"
has often been interpreted to mean the side toward the Indian Ocean, where
the Zulu nation was located when the Natal region was settled by the English;
but in view of it being said that the tract DB is "toward Asia," that interpretation
is a striking thing that the DE tract, which must constitute a large part
of the interior of Africa, extends from the Bushman country through to
the Pygmy rain forest, though the whole area is also occupied by Bantu
tribes, right across into West Africa. The pygmoid peoples were driven
into the fastnesses of regions most difficult to penetrate and have proven
to be the most elusive and hard to contact of all African groups.
is said of those from the Papal region who come into the tract DE being
rejected, reminds me of a staternent of Jean-Pierre Hallet in Pygmy
Pygmies deplore as superstitious nonsense the negroes' magico-religious
figurines and other so-called fetishes. They would take an equally dim view
of churchly huts adorned with doll-like statues of Jesus and Mary. This
would be regarded as idol-worship by the Ituri forest Pygmies, who believe
that the divine power of the universe cannot be confined within material
bounds. (p. 15)
is almost as hard to convey the impressions and thoughts evoked by personal
contact with the Pygmies of the Ituri forest, as it is to obtain those experiences
in the first place. To travel from Bafwasendi to Beni is an adventure by
itself, for the route is like a river of mud most times of the year; and
on numberless occasions, one depends on the surprising but certain appearance
of local inhabitants of the forest to be drawn out of the mire. Yet on
this journey one might not see a single Pygmy. Few villages are near enough
to the roadway, and if a village does happen to be within view, it might
not be seen; for it blends in with the forest foliage as if it were part
of nature. The low, round huts look like heaps of large, green leaves.
arriving at Hoysha during such a trip, we encountered a Pygmy woman who
had come up to the little one-room Catholic mission station for medical
help. We asked her in a combination of sign-language, French and Lingala,
whether we might accompany her to her village. The Sister was anything
but helpful, trying in various ways to prevent us from going. However,
it was not long before a line of nine people was jogging along a forest
path, straining to keep up with the tiny guide, who was carrying an infant
to boot. The hike took us through about three miles of increasingly dense
and high growth, over a stream by way of a fallen tree, onto a vast slope
canopied by a host of tremendous trees. It felt like being in a huge temple;
the foliage seemed to hover a mile over our heads, crackling and echoing
with the sounds of a thousand monkeys.
little woman kept up a steady jaunt, especially difficult to imitate on
one stretch, where our path was crossed intermittently by colony after
colony of soldier ants, to whose stinging bites several of us, especially
myself, fell victim. In fact so many had found their way up my legs that
the first hospitality shown me on coming into the village, was the removal
of my trousers by friendly, laughing little people, who gathered around
me, jabbering with excitement, and commenced to pick off ants from my
body as though I were a dog infested with fleas.
think this opening was a good one, for we were now all in a high state
of amusement among these sweet, child-like fellow human beings, who had
known of our coming at least a half hour ahead of time.
return for their friendly reception and offering of all kinds of gifts,
like arrows and bows, a drum, a smoke from the pipe of peace, and dancing
and singing in the most primitive and spontaneous fashion, our main contribution
was smiles and cigarettes. Our women held their babies, and they all babbled
together in their own languages as though there had never been a Babel.
had been followed by two hangers-on, not Pygmy, who were along for what
they could get out of it, but they did prove useful in helping to communicate.
were, and I think fortunately, not, on this occasion, looking for anything
specific. We were totally unrehearsed and unscientific in our approach
to these Pygmies. I think that the outstanding thing that we experienced
was the simple, exquisitely perceptive lovingness in which they live their
earthly lives; the unity of feeling and thought, the harmony of their minds
with the Creator, with each other, and with Nature, which they look upon
and treat with the greatest reverence. From little things, one could see
that they were quite unburdened by cupidities of greed or distrust such
as one finds rampant in those round about.
this sojourn in Central Africa, subsequent, more directed observation of
Pygmy custom and language as compared to those of other Africans, strongly
bore out the suggestion of affinity with pre-Indo-European culture, maybe
not any more remotely than do those of the Hittites, whose connection with
the Most Ancients is clearly indicated in Arcana Caelestia, no. 4447.
is a coined word but rich in meaning. It could be interpreted in one sense
as the sum of all oral tradition with special reference to what is religious.
Ki- is a non-class prefix, the same used variantly in Bantu languages
for words indicating a language, e.g. kiSwahili, ciLuba, seSuto, isiZulu.
Tabu, a Polynesian word, comes into English as “taboo,” defined
in one dictionary as "a religious prohibition . . . by which persons and
things were rendered sacred and inviolable." Thus kiTabu is the
"Book of Knowledge" of any primitive society.
forms of writing as we know it are conspicuously absent among these forest
people, the Efé Pygmy legends, which are passed down orally in a
most specific religious language, are said "to offer almost inconceivably
archaic patterns or archetypes for all the major Hamitic, Semitic and Indo-European
stories of the Lost Paradise" (Pelle, in Hallet p. 70). Recall the mention
of the "sacred fire" as one of the religious things that passed from the
into the kingdoms of Africa (SS 117). The Pygmies derive all their fire
from a sacred source, and it burns perpetually. Traditionally, they never
light a fire.
is evidence of linguistic affinity of Pygmy speech to Indo-European language,
which, however, has not been proven, simply through lack of study; or,
as Hallet puts it: "The anthropololgists . . . debate the matter from their
armchairs" (p. 67). Indirectly, there are strong reasons to suppose that
the Pygmies were an early branching-off from the same stream of steatopygous
little men that forged their way as far as the southern deserts in
the evening of neolithic times.6
read in Last Judgment Posthumous that
that the number previously quoted (SD 5809) stated that their Word "is
not like ours."
the case of the Pygmies, there is abundant evidence that they have received
indelibly the essentials of monotheistic theology including the anthropomorphic
idea of God (the "Ancient of Days," with a white beard) and spiritual-moral
precepts of life far superior to those of any other group in Africa.
Of all sins against the Divine order, cruelty toward children, needless
killing of man, animal, or plant, adultery, and even pollution, are most
abhorrent to them. What applies to the Pygmies seems to be true also of
of both Pygmy and Bushmen culture have noted the absence of the acquisitive
instincts innate in the other races of Africa and Europe. Hallet quotes
Efé friends as saying:
Van Der Post in The Lost World of the Kalahari complains:
of both groups attest to amazing instances of communication with spirits,
conceived as nothing but departed members of their society, and also of
telepathic powers beyond any on earth. But what of a written Word, revealed
through spiritual instructors ?
there was a written revelation among these ancient "small men"—late Stone
Agers—then it can be postulated that it must have been at least partially
contained in the forms of the "art" found on the faces of caves and cliffs
from Spain to South Africa, from
Algeria to Abyssinia.7 The earliest parietal drawings were animal
and human silhouettes in colors; also engravings; later, shaded polychromes
in more detailed and complicated patterns, and black and white finger paintings
of animals; and of symbols, often spiral and circular.8 The
locations of the earlier rock pictures coincide with areas in which the
pedomorphic bush peoples either tarried or passed in migration about six
thousand years ago.
use the word "art" only to indulge the attitude of modern man. But what
really did these petroglyphs of animals, men, sun and circle and cup symbols,
mean to those who inscribed them? Were they not rather "sermons in stone?"
Art, in the Stone Age, was not, as it is for the most part today, self
expression, or the venting of individualism or frustration, or mere doodling.
Those artists were the scribes, the priests, the sacerdotes—and
their productions were purely religious. If any art was ever inspired,
those drawings were dictated from heaven, stroke by stroke: meaningful
as a spiritual language of representatives, laden with messages from above
and magically potent, able to entrance the beholder into a vision of the
spiritual verities—as powerful as any archetype ever insinuated into the
dreaming mind of man to relate him to the spiritual side of his existence.
tells of a Pygmy practice, unknown among the Bantu Africans, of knotting
strings in various designs and figures which the Pygmies claimed to be
"writing" (pp. 210–13). White visitors to the Kalahari twenty years ago
witnessed Bushmen contacting spirits by gazing at a piece of thread wound
some special manner around a finger (see Van Der Post, p. 196).
representatives are presented to view in the world of spirits, including
frequent presentations of animals before the eyes of spirits . . . sometimes
such as never are seen on earth, but are purely representative. (AC 2179)
modern man, with his hereditarily closed-up, degenerate natural mind, it
would appear that the Lord can no longer suggest truths—simply, as it were
with a gesture of His Finger: no, He must reason and even argue and even
then, man is loath to hear the message. Delicate, primitive revelation
has had to be rewritten again and again to reach mankind in his increasing
grossness. What to early man was almost self-evident, has now to be explained
in all details.
again the word 'archetype.' Consider the set of universal, Divinely ordained
symbols or representatives having the power to convey, and to conjoin the
human mind with, the inner world of eternity with its values.
few weeks ago, I observed a 3-month infant who was crying and fussing suddenly
become silent as its eye caught sight of a zebra skin hanging on the balcony
above it. For fifteen minutes it watched, hypnotized, never shifting its
gaze from the intriguing object. It cooed and sputtered and smiled. lt
was receiving a revelation. The episode thus served to instruct the onlooker,
that the design on an animal's hide is also an archetype. If this sounds
doubtful, it would be helpful to review and study the many passages on
animals in the spiritual world, and on representations in general.
those of the New Church find an easy comfort in the assumption that the
Lord, with them in His Second Coming, has become more communicative than
He was before? If they do, perhaps they are on the wrong track. The truth
is, that His Arm has never been shortened, that It cannot save. The truth
is, that when human skulls become thicker, minds more callous, He reaches
out farther and knocks harder. But His early children on this planet simply
did not need the kind of medicine He has had to prepare for the sons of
The point is: there are strong indications that those ancient stone documents,
for their readers, were indeed part of a written Word that gave the ultimate
foundation for what is called “interior revelation,” or "perception," of
heavenly and spiritual realities.
have not dealt here with many of the criteria that apply in the determination
of relationships among the migrant late Stone Age tribes of the African
continent: such criteria as types of weapons and tools, skeletal remains,
domesticated animals shown in the drawings, and carbon-dating of reliquiae.
These are anthropological data that those who are interested can investigate
for themselves. The purpose of this presentation has been only to provoke
further study of a subject that is unlimited in every one of its dimensions,
and to intensify the anticipation all must share who are eager to participate
in a visit to the Ituri Pygmies of Zaire—an ethnic group whose stamping-ground
in 1976, for reasons which cannot be discussed here, was governmentally
declared out of bounds for tourist and student alike.
Dr. J. Durban Odhner's article is the text of a lecture he gave to the
members and friends of the Academy Museum Association, Bryn Athyn, on 26th
Oct. 1976. Two weeks earlier the now Rev. Christopher D. Bown had given
a lecture on "The Ancient Word." We hope to be able to publish at least
a summary of Mr. Bown's study in a future issue. (Ed.[of The New Philodophy])
LJ post. 121.
Cf. DP 251.
See Plate I
See Plate Il
See C.K. Cooke, throughout. See also Plate I.
See Plate III.
C.K. 1969. Rock Art of Southern Africa. Capetown: Cape & Transvaal Printers
Jean-Pierre. 1973. Pigmy Kitabu. New York: Random House.
& Bandi. 1953. Art in the Ice Age. London: George Allen and
E. 1902. The Spiritual Diary of Emanuel Swedenborg, translated by
Rev. James F. Buss. London: James Speirs.
Der Post, L. 1958. The Lost World of the Kalahari. London: The Hogarth Press.