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PRECIOUS STONES
Compiled by  Andrew J. Heilman
[NOTE:  This treatment of the subject matter is primarily quoted from the Sacred Scripture and Heavenly Doctrine.]

 CONTENTS

CORRESPONDENCE AND ORIGIN

PROPERTIES OF PRECIOUS STONES AND THEIR CORRESPONDENCE OR ORIGIN
        HARDNESS
        BRILIANCE
        FIRE
        TRANSPARENCY
        COLOR

VARIETIES AND DEGREES OF DIFFERENCE  IN THE PROPERTIES OF PRECIOUS STONES
        VARIETY OF COLORS
        DEGREES OF TRANSPARENCY
        DEGREES OF PRECIOUSNESS
        FLAMINESS AND BRILLIANCE

STONES
        TARSHISH OR AQUAMARINE
        JASPER
        SARDIUS
        RUBY
        PYPYROPE AND CARBUNCLE (GARNETS)
        CHRYSOPRASE
        SAPPHIRE
        DIAMOND
        CYANITE AND AMETHYST
        AGATE
        SHOHAK OR ONYX
        CRYSTAL


THE CORRESPONDENCE AND ORIGIN


      Thus says the Lord Jehovih, "You seal up the measure, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. In Eden, the garden of God, you were. Every precious stone was your covering: the ruby, the topaz, and the diamond, the tarshish,were the ahointed cherub who covers, and I put you on the mountain of the holiness of God, and in the middle of the stones of fire you walked.  - Ezek 28:12-14

Precious stones such as rubies, topazes, diamonds and sapphires, have been valued and sought after since ancient times. This can be seen by the many references to precious stones throughout the letter of the Word from beginning to end (Gen 2:12, Rev 21:19,20). The value and use of these stones by the ancients is also confirmed by many artifacts that have survived through the ages. That these stones are still precious and desired in modern times, can be confirmed by any- one by taking a precious stone in his hand and observing its flaminess and brilhance, its play of color and light, and its hardness and yet delicateness. For the preciousness of these stones is not a result of the value men attribute to them, but is an intrinsic quality from their very creation by the Lord.

The origin and creation of precious stones is described as follows in the Apocalipse Revealed: "All the precious stones in heaven originate out of the ultimates of the Word, and are transparent out of the spiritual sense of the ultimates there. ... The ultimates of the Word are the truths and goods of its sense of the letter. It can hardly be believed by anyone in our world that this is the origin of the precious stones in heaven, because he does not know that all things that come into existence in the spiritual world are correspondences, and that all the things that come into existence in the natural world. originate therefrom. It has been granted me to know as a result of speaking with angels, and to see also with my eyes, that this is the origin of the precious stones in heaven. But the formation of them is by the Lord alone." (AR 231) This is the primary and real origin of precious stones, and it is from this origin that precious stones receive their preciousness and beauty, indeed all of their qualities. It is true that the Lord created these stones in geological matrices, and continues to form them in these matrices in what might be called geological processes, which in the case of precious stones usually involve high temperatures and pressures. But can we say that the chemicals and conditions present are the origin of the beauty and brilhance of precious stones? This would be like saying that the beauty of a baby derives its origin from the womb, or the delights of conjugial love originate in the love of sex. Indeed we are taught that conjurial love is in the love of sex as a gem is in its matrix (CL 97).  If we compare conjugial love to love of the sex, it is clear that love of the sex can in no way be considered the origin of conjugial love, but only its containant. In the same way, if we compare the matrix or mother rock to the precious stone, it becomes evident that matrix did not form the precious stone, but is only its containant.

Nor can we say that the high temperatures and pressurers together with the right chemicals formed the precious stones, any more than we can say that the potter's wheel, furhace and clay forms beautiful vase. It is the Divine Potter who formed man from the dust of the ground, who also forms the precious stones in correspondence to the letter of the Word; indeed the presence of His Divine Love and power may manifest themselves in high temperatures and pressures, but it is He Himself, who forms the precious stones and gives them their intrinsic qualities, later to be uncovered by the miner and "the gem-cutter.


THE PROPERTIES OF PRECIOUS STONES AND THEIR CRRESPDNDENCE OR ORIGIN

The Lord does not, however, create precious stones immediately, but forms them In correspondence to the ultimates of the Word in the spiritual world, and by means of this spiritual creation they come into existence in the natural world. Thus it is that precious stones are created in correspondence with the Letter of the Word, which means that their spiritual origin, which is their real and essential origin, is in the ultimates of the Word. For this reason, the intrinsic properties of precious stones, such as hardness, translucency or trans parency, flaminess or briliance, and color, are derived from the spir itual qualities of the letter of the Word.

HARDNESS

      Son of man, behold, I have made your faces strong against their faces, and your forehead strong a-gainst their forehead. As a diamond, stronger than rock, I have made your forehead. - - Ezek 3:8,9

These words to Ezekial, who represented the Word of the Lord, signify the hardness of truth when acting against ml and falsity. "The reason why hardness is expressed by a rock, is from the correspondence of a rock with truth from good, for all power belongs to truth from good. But when truth acts against falsity from evil, then good is blunted, and the remaining truth acts with hardness, according to the above words in Ezekiel." (AE 411:3)

BRILIANCE

      And he showed me the great city, the holy Jeru-salem, coming down from God out of heaven, having the glory of God, and its light was like a most precious stone, as it were a jasper stone shining like crystal. Rev 21:10,11

"By these words is described the understanding of the Word with those who are in the doctrine of the New Jerusalem and in a life in accordance therewith. With them the Word shines as it were when being read. It shines from the Lord by means of the spiritual sense, because the Lord is the Word, and the spiritual sense is in the light of heaven that proceeds from the Lord as the Sun, And the light that proceeds from the Lord as the Sun is in its essence the Divine Truth . . of His Divine Wisdom. In the details of the Word there is the spiritual sense in which the angels are and from which their wisdom is. The Word is transparent by virtue of the light of that sense with those who are in genuine truths from the Lord." (AR 897)

FIRE

      I will put pyropes for your suns, and your gates stones of carbuncles and all your borders of stones of desire. And all your sons will be taught of Jehovah. Jehovah. Isaiah 54:12,13.

"These thinge are said of the gentiles outside the church, from whom a new church was to be established by the Lord. By I will put pyropes for your suns' is signified that goods will be brilhant from the fire of love, suns there denoting the goods of love, and the pyrope denoting a brilhance as from fire. By your gates of carbuncles' is signified that truths will be resplendent from good, gates denoting the introductory truths, specifically the doctrinals that are from good. For all genuine truths of doctrine proceed from good, and are goods, and the carbuncle stones signify their brightness from good. All precious stones signify truths from good, and their color, brightness and fire indicate the quality of the truth from good." (AE 401:25)

TRANSPARENCY

      And they saw the God of Israel, and under His feet as it were a work of sapphire stone, and
      it was like the substance of heaven for clean ness.
      - Exodus 24:10

"'The work of sapphire stone* denotes the quality of the literal sense of the Word when the internal is perceived in it, thus when the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord, such as it is in heaven, shines through the literal sense. For the Word is the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord, and this Truth in its origin is Divine. And in its progress through the heavens, in the inmost heaven it is celestial, in the second or middle heaven it is spiritual, in the first or ultimate heaven it is spiritual-natural, and in the world it is natural and worldly, of which description is the Word in the sense of the letter which is for man. From this it is evident that this latter sense, which is the last in order, contains in itself the spiritual and the celestial senses, and in its inmost the very Divine sense. And so far as these senses are contained in the last, that is, in the literal sense, and so far as they appear to those who apprehend the Word spiritually, it is therefore represented by the work of sapphire stone which transmits the rays of heavenly light, that is trans-lucent." (AC

COLOR

      And the foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with every precious stone. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chaledony, the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh,crysolite,the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth crysoprase, the eleventh ayacinth, the twelfth amethyst.

"Here by each stone is signified some specific truth transparent by means of the spiritual sense, for the Word in the sense of the letter as to doctrinal things corresponds to precious stones of every kind. There are two colors in general that shine forth in precious stones, the color red and the color bright white. The rest of the colors, as green, yellow, sky-blue and many more, are composed of those modified with black. By the red color is signified the good of love, and by the bright white color is signified the truth of wis-dom. The reason why the red color signifies the good of love is because it derives its origin from the fire of the sun, and the fire of the sun of the spiritual world is in its essence the Lord's Divine Love, thus the good of love. And the reason why the bright white color signifies the truth of wisdom is because it derives its origin from the light that proceeds out of the fire of that sun, and that proceeding light in its essence is the Divine Wisdom, thus the truth of wisdom. And black derives it origin from the shade of those, which is ignorance." (AR 915)

VARIETIES AND DEGREES OF DIFFERENCE
 IN THE PROPERTIES OF PRECIOUS STONES

In the properties of precious stones which come forth from their correspondence with the letter of the Word, we find marvelous varieties and degrees of diference. There are degrees of preciousness, degrees of transparency or translucency, degrees of flaminess and brilhance, and a remarkable variety of colors. This variety also comes forth from the spiritual origin of precious stones, which is the Word in the heavens. For the Word in the heavens is accommodated to the reception of the angels, which varies from the fire of celestial love in the highest heaven, to the obscurity of natural truth in the lowest heaven. And so it is that these variations in the properties of precious stones correspond to the variety of ways in which the Lord's Word is received according to the truths and goods in the different heavens.

THE VARIETY OF COLORS IN PRECIOUS STONES

      And your shall fill the breast plate of judgment with a filling of stone. Four rows of stone, the order: a ruby, a topaz, a carbuncle, one row. And the second row: a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond. And the third row: a cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst. And the fourth row: a tarshish, a shoham and a jasper.  - Ex 28:17-20

"The light which proceeds from the Lord appears in the inmost heaven like a flame, wherefore the colors, which come from thence, are red and flashing. The same light, however, appears in the middle heaven as a shining white light, wherefore the colors which origi- nate therefrom are of a bright white color, and in proportion to the good they have in them they are sparkling. For this reason there are two fundamental colors, to which all the remaining colors have relation, namely, the red and the white color. The red color is representative of good, and the white color of truth. From this it appears why it was that stones of so many colors were set in rows in the breastplate, namely, that they might represent in their order all the goods and truths which are in the heavens, and consequently the whole heaven."

"Precious stones are significative according to their colors, and colors in the heavens are modifications of the light and the shade there, therefore they are variegations of the intelligence and wisdom with the angels. For the light of heaven is the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord, out of which come all intelligence and wisdom. On account of their redness, the stones of the first row signify the celestial love of good,but the stones belonging to the second row derive their signification from a blue derived from red. For there is a blue from red and a blue from white. The blue from red glows inwardly from a flamy element -- this blue it is which signifies the celestial love of truth. But the blue from white, such as" it is in the stones of the third row, whereby the spiritual love of good is signified, does not gleam inwardly from a flamy element, but from a lumi-nous one. ... The stones of the fourth row signify the spiritual love of truth, in which the higher terminate, ... for the color of all the stones of this row verges towards a shining white from blue."

"The Divine sphere which encompasses the Lord is out of His Divine Love and at the same time out of His Divine Wisdom, and when this Divine Wisdom is represented in heaven, it appears in the celestial kingdom becoming emerald red like a ruby, in the spiritual kingdom becoming blue like a cyanus, and in the natural kingdom becoming green like an everywhere with ineffable splendor and radiance." (AR 232)

"And they approached and entered a room with walls shining as of gold, and they saw there also a table upon which lay the Word bound up with precious stones in a heavenly form. And the guardian angel said, "When the Word is opened a light of ineffable whiteness shines forth, and then by reason of the precious stones a rainbow appears above and around the Word. Whenever any angel out of the third heaven comes thither and looks at the opened Word the many-colored rainbow above and around the Word appears on a red ground, When an angel out of the second heaven comes thither and looks the rainbow appears on a blue ground. When an angel out of the ultimate heaven comes and looks the rainbow appears on a white ground. When any good spirit comes and looks there appears a variegation of light like marble," (AR 566)

DEGREES OF TRANSPARENCY

      And in front of the throne was a sea of glass like crystal.  - Rev 4:6

"By 'the sea of glass' that was 'in front of the throne' is understood the church with those who are in the boundaries ... It is said 'a sea of glass like crystal' on account of the transparency of the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord." (AR 238)

"It will now be explained what is the nature of the influx of light into the three degrees of life in man which belong to his mind. The forms which are receptacles of heat and light, that is, of love and wisdom in man, and which are in threefold order, or of three degrees, are transparent from birth, and transmit spiritual light just as crystal glass transmits natural light." (DLW 245)

"The Divine Life, which animates man by influx from the Sun of the angelic heaven, may be compared to the light of the sun of this world and its influx into a transparent object. The reception of that life in the highest degree may be compared to the influx of that light into a diamond, its reception in the second degree to the influx of light into a crystal, and its reception in the lowest degree to the influx of light into glass or into a transparent membrane." (TCR 34)

DEGREES OF PRECIOUSNESS

      The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure hidden in a field, which, when a man finds, he hides, and for the joy of it, goes and sells all that he has, and buys that field.  - Matt 13:44

"Every man who does not know that there is a certain spiritual sense in the Word, as the soul is in the body, can judge of it only from the sense of the letter, when nevertheless this is like a casket containing treasures, which are its spiritual sense. Therefore when this internal sense is not known, one can no more judge of the Divine Sanctity of the Word than a precious stone by the matrix which encloses it, which sometimes appears like ordinary stone: or than one can judge, by a cabinet of jasper, lapis-lazuli, amianthus or specular stone or agate, of the diamonds, rubies, sardonyxes, oriental topazes, etc., which lie arranged in order within it. When the contents are not known it is no wonder that the cabinet is esteeemed only according to the value of the material composing it, which is visible to the eye. It is the same with the Word as to the sense of its Letter." (TCR 192)

"The two sacraments, baptism and holy supper, are in the Christian Church like two jewels on the scepter of a king, but if their uses are not known, they are only like two figures of ebony on a staff. They may also be compared to two rubies or carbuncles on the cloak of an emperor, but if their uses are not known, they are only like two carne-lians or crystals on any gown. Unless the uses of these sacraments were revealed by means of the spiritual sense, there would be conjectures about them, such as are formed by those who practise divination by the stars." (TCR 669)

"The three degrees which exist in heaven, and consequently in the human mind, may be illustrated in some measure by comparison with mat-terial things in the world. These three degrees are distinct from one another as the ruby, the sapphire, and the agate are in relative purity and goodness.... For in the Word the ruby signifies celestial good which is the good pf the highest heaven, the sapphire signifies spiritual good which is the good of the middle heaven, and the agate signifies natural good which is the good of the lowest heaven." (TCR 609)

FLAMINESS AND BRILLIANCE

      And you shall put into the breastplate of judg-ment the Urim and Thummim.  - Exodus 28:30

"The Lord gave answers by the Urim and Thummim, for according to the state of the matter in question they received answers by means of lights and their radiance from the precious and pellucid stones, on which were inscribed the names of the twelve tribes. ... What the order was of the precious stones in the Urim and Thummim is mentioned and described in the Word, but to what tribe each stone corresponded is not mentioned, for the stones represented all light from celestial flame, that is, all things of truth from good, or all things of faith from love. Because they had this representation, heavenly light itself shone through in a miraculous manner in accordance with the state of the subject concerning which there was question and answer, being glowing and shining for an affirmative of what was good and true, together with variegations of colors according to the differences of the state of that which was good and true. ... For within heavenly light there is life from the Lord, consequently wisdom and intelligence, and, therefore, in the differences of the light there is everything that belongs to the life of truth; that is, everyhting that belongs to wisdom and intelligence. And in the differences of the flame and its glowing and resplendence, there is everything that belongs to the life of good and to the life of truth from good, or to love to the Lord and the derivative faith. Such were the Urim and Thummim that were on the breastplate of the ephod and on the heart of Aaron." (AC 3862)

"That such is the case, appears also from the significations of Urim and Thummim. For Urim means a shining fire, and Thummim the sparkling forth from it. A shining fire denotes the Divine Truth from the Divine Good of the Divine Love of the Lord, and the sparkling forth denotes the same Truth in ultimates or last things, and thus in the effect. It is also to be noted that Thummim in the Hebrew tongue denotes integrity, but in the angelic tongue a sparkling forth." (AC 9905)

"The Word in its inmost depths is from its celestial sense like a gentle flame which burns, and in its middle recesses is from its spiritual sense like a light which illuminates. Consequently the Word in its ultimate form from its natural sense is like a transparent object, recipient of both flame and light, glowing like crimson from the flame, and gleaming like snow from the light. Thus it is respectively like a ruby and like a diamond; from the celestial flame like a ruby, and from the spiritual light like a diamond. Since this is the nature of the Word in the sense of the Letter, therefore the Word: in this sense is meant by ... the Urim and Thummim on Aaron's ephod." (TCR 216)

"From this it may appear that through the Urim and Thummim, that is, through the sparkling forth of the light of heaven, the breastplate revealed Divine Truths in the natural sphere, and thus in ultimate or last things. A similar sparkling forth also has place inwardly with those who are in truths from good. For this dictates, and as it were gives replies, when the truth, from an affection of the heart, is inquired after, and when it is loved as good." (AC 9905)

STONES

TARSHISH OR AQUAMARINE

      I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold from Uphaz. His body also was like the tarshish, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire, and his arms and feet like the shining of burnished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.  - Dan 10:5,6

"By the 'tarshish' like to which the rest of the body appeared, namely, the middle of the body between the head and the loins, is signified the good of charity and of faith, for the tarshish is a flashing precious stone." (AC 6135)

"The color of the tarshish, shoham and jasper verges towards a shining white from blue. That the tarshish signifies the spiritual love of truth, appears from the passages in the Word where it is named, as in Ezekiel 1:16 and 10:9, 'Behold four wheels beside the cherubim; the appearance of the wheels was like the tarshish stone." The wheels of the cherubim signify the same as the arms and feet with man, namely the power of acting and moving forward, which is that of the truth from good. For this reason it is that their appearance was like the tarshish stone, for the tarshish denotes the truth derived from spiritual good, which truth has power.

JASPER

      And the structure of its wall was of jasper.  - Rev 21:18

"When by the holy city Jerusalem' is understood the Lord's New Church as to doctrine, by its 'wall' nothing else is understood but the Word in the sense of the letter from which the doctrine is derived. For that sense protects the spiritual sense which is concealed within just as a wall protects a city and its inhabitants. ... 'A jasper stone' signifies the Divine Truth of the Word in the sense of the letter translucent by virtue of the Divine Truth in the spiritual sense. This is signified by 'a jasper stone in Exodus 28:20 and Ezekiel 28:13, and also by what is said in the Apocalipse, 'that the structure of the wall of the New Jerusalem was of jasper.'" (AR 898,897)

SARDIUS

      And behold a throne was set upon the throne One sitting, and He that sat was in aspect like a stone of jasper and sardius.  - Rev. 4:2,3

"Precious stones in the Word signify such things as are either of the truth of wisdom or of the good of love. And a jasper because it gleams white, signifies the things that are of the truth of wisdom, while a sardius, because it glows red, signifies the things that are of the good of love. These stones signify the appearing of Divine Wisdom and Divine Love in ultimates, because all precious stones in ' heaven originate out of the ultimates of the Word. ... The ultimates of the Word are the truths and goods of its sense of the letter." (AR 231)

RUBY

      Four rows of stone, the order: a ruby, a topaz, a carbuncle, one row.  - EX 28:l7

"That celestial love of good is signified by these stones, is on account of their red and flaming color, for red signifies love, and, in like manner, what is flaming. In the present case these stones signify celestial love, because they are in the first row. ... The ruby, which occupies the first place, in the original tongue, is derived from a word which signifies redness." (AC 9865}

"Because red signifies the quality of a thing as to good, therefore also names and things which are named from the same expression in the original tongue signify the good in which they originate. Red in the original tongue is called 'Adam', from which comes the name 'Adam', and also the name Edom, and hence also man is called 'Adam', the ground Adama, and the ruby 'Odam'. Thus these names and things are from red. ... That the: ruby also is named from red, may be seen in Exod 28:17; 39:10 and Ezek 28:13. Hence it is that by the ruby is signified the truth of celestial good." (AE 364)

PYPYROPE AND CARBUNCLE
(GARNETS)

      I will put the pyrope for your suns, and your gates of carbuncles, and all your borders of stones of desire.  And all your sons will be taught of Jehova.  - Isaiah 54:12,23

"By 'I will put the pyrope for your suns' is signified that goods will be brilhant from the fire of love, suns here denoting the goods of love, and the pyrope denoting the brilhance as from fire.' By 'your gates of carbuncles' is signified that truths will be resplendent from good, gates denoting the introductory truths, specifically the doc-trinals that are from good. For all genuine truths of doctrine pro- ceed from good, and are goods, and the carbuncle stones signify their brightness "from good. All precious stones signify truths from good, and their color, brightness and fire indicate the quality of the truth fron good." (AE 401:25)

"That the celestial love of good was represented by the stones in the "first row of the breastplate was on account of their partaking of red. ... The carbuncle, which occupies the third place in this row, in the original tongue is derived from a term which signifies a flashing, as from fire." (AC 9865)

CHRYSOPRASE

      Syria is thy merchant from the multitude of thy works in chrysoprase, crimson, and embroidered work, and fine linen. -  Ezekiel 27:16

"Whether the chrysoprase, which is the first stone of this row (second row of breastplate), was of a blue color cannot be shown from its derivation in the original tongue; but that it signifies the celestial love of truth is evident from Ezekiel 27:l6. ... Tyre is here treated of, by which is signified the wisdom and intelli-gence derived from the knowledges of good and truth. The chroso-prase is here joined with crimson, and since crimson signifies the celestial love of good, it follows that the chrysoprase signifies the celestial love of truth, for wherever good is treated of in the prophetic Word, truth of the same kind, on account of the heavenly marriage in each of the things therein, is likewise treated of. Syria also, which is the merchant, signifies the knowledges of good; the knowledges of good are the truths of celestial love." (AC 9868)

SAPPHIRE

      In the expanse that was above the head of the cherubim, there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.  - Ezekiel 10:1

"The sapphire in a general sense signifies the external of the celestial kingdom,.... which is evident from the passages in the Word where it is named, as in Exodus 24P10, ... and Isaiah 54:11 and Lamentation 4:7. Also in Ezeikiel l0:1, where also the external of the celestial kingdom is described by a sapphire, for that which in above the expanse or round about, this is without: the inmost is signified by Him that sat upon the throne." (AC 9373)

"Truth Divine which is translucent in the last thing of order, which consists of the Word in the letter, is chiefly signified by a sapphire, as in ... Ezekiel 10:1. The cherubim denote the Lord's guard and Providence, ...and the throne upon which was the appearance of a man signifies the Divine Truth from the Divine Good of the Lord. It is evident from this that a 'sapphire stone denbtes the truth which is translucent from internal truths, namely, that the stone denotes truth, and sapphire translucence." (AC 9407)

"That the sapphire, which is the second stone of this row (second row of breastplate), is of a blue color, such as that of the sky, is well known, wherefore it is said in the Book of Exodus: seventy elders saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet as it were the work of a sapphire, and like the substance of heaven for cleanness. (24:10)" (AC 9868)SAPH

"That the sapphire, which is the second stone of this row (second row of breastplate), is of a blue color, such as that of the sky, is well known, wherefore it is said in the Book of Exodus: 'Seventy elders saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet as it were the work of a sapphire, and like the substance of heaven for cleanness." (24:10)" (AC 9868)

DIAMOND

      And the second row: a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond. Ex 28:18

"That a diamond, which is the third stone of this row of the breastplate, denotes the truth of celestial love, is because of its transparency, which verges towards interior blueness. For in this wise because it is last, the colors of the stones of this row, as well as those of the first row, shine through it, and communicate with those which are in the following row. The case is the same with the good and the truths in the inmost heaven, and also with the good ' and the truths in the following heavens; for the latter derive their life of charity and faith from the former through communication, and as it were through transparency." (AC 9868)

"The Divine Life, which animates man by influx from the Sun of the angelic heaven, may be compared to the light of the sun of this world and its influx into a transparent object. The reception of that life in the highest degree may be compared to the influx of that light into a diamond." (TCR 34)

CYANITE AND AMETHYST

      And the third row: a cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst.  - Ex 28:19

"That these stones signify the the spiritual love of good, appears from their color. For the blue color which is derived from white, signifies spiritual good, or what is the same thing, the spiritual love of good. The spiritual love of good is the charity towards the neighbor, and the spiritual love of the truth, is the faith which flows from charity. Of the former good and the latter truth consists the second heaven; the internal of that heaven is the good of charity and its external is the good of faith. That the cyanus, as well as the amethyst, is of a blue color, is well known." (AC 9870)

AGATE

      And the third row: a cyanus, an agate and an amethyst.  - Exod 28:l9

"That these stones signify the spiritual love pf good, appears from their color. For the blue color which is derived from white, signifies spiritual good, or what is the same thing spiritual love of good. ... That the cyanus, as well as the amethyst, is of a blue color is well known; whether such also is the case with the agate, is not so well known, for in the original tongue it is not known to what species this stone belongs, whether it is an agate, a turquoise, or some other stone." (AC 9870)

"The three degrees which exist in heaven, and consequently in the hunan mind, may be illustrated in some measure by comparison with material things in the world. These three degrees are distinct from one another as the ruby, the sapphire, and the agate are in relative purity and goodness. ... For in the Word,the ruby signifies celestial good which is the good of the highest heaven, the sapphire signifies spiritual good which is the good of the middle heaven, and the agate signifies natural good which is the good of the lowest heaven." (TCR 609)

"no one can judge by a cabinet of jasper, lapis-lazuli, amiathus or specular stone or agate, of the diamonds, rubies, sardonyxes, oriental topazes, etc, which lie arranged in order within it. When the contents are not known it is no wonder that the cabinet is esteemed only according to the value of the material composing it, which is visible to the eye. It is the same with the Word as to the sense of the letter." (TCR 192)

SHOHAK OR ONYX

      And you shall take two stones of shoham and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel.  - Exodus 28:9

"This signifies the interior memory which is from the truths of faith which flow from love. The stones of shoham denote the truths of faith from love. The reason they denote the memory here, is because the names of the sons of Israel were engraven on them" (AC 9841)

"The stone of shoham signifies the external of the spiritual kingdom. On this account also it was that this was the stone which was placed on the two shoulder-pieces of the ephod, with the names of the sons of Israel engraven on them; for by the ephod is represented the external of the spiritual kingdom. Since the shoham and the sapphire in a general sense signify the externals of the two heavens, therefore they were also placed in the middle of the three stones of the second and fourth rows of the breastplate, for the middle embraces the whole." (AC 9873:7)

CRYSTAL

      And he showed me a pure river of water of life shining like a crystal, going forth but of the throne of God and of the Lamb.  - Rev 22:l

"These words signify that the Apocalipse is now opened and ex- pounded as to the spiritual sense, where Divine truths in abundance have been revealed by the Lord for those who will be in His New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. By 'a pure river of water of life shining like crystal' is signified the Divine Truth of the Word in abundance transparent by virtue of its spiritual sense, which is in the light of heaven." (AR 932)

"They who have loved Divine truths and the Word from interior affection, or from an affection of the truth itself, dwell in the other life in light, in elevated places that appear like mountains, where they are continually in the light of heaven. ... In their houses everything glows as if from precious stones, and looking through the windows is like looking through pure crystal. Such are the delights of their vision; but these same things are interiorly delightful because of their being from correspondences with Divine heavenly things, for the truths of the Word which they have loved correspond to ... precious stones, windows and crystals." (HH 489)