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Lectures by Hugo Lj. Odhner


Chapter VII

as revealed in the Writings of the New Church

    1.    The common Good requires that in a society or kingdom there shall be:










   What is Divine with them.

     That there shall be justice with them.

     That there shall be morality with them.

    That there shall be industry, knowledge, and uprightness with them

     That there shall be the necessaries of life.

     That there shall be the things necessary to their occupations.

     That there shall be the things necessary for protection.

     That there shall be the a sufficiency of wealth, because from this comes the three former necessaries"  (Char. 130).

(The references to the Doctrine of Charity are to the numbering used in Potts' Concordance.)

    C. 131:

          "From these arises the general good; and yet it does not come of these themselves, but from the individuals there, and through the goods of use which individuals perform.  As, for instance, even what is Divine is there through ministers; and justice through magistrates and judges; so morality exists by means of the                                                                                                 Divine and of justice; and necessaries by means of industrial occupations and commerce; and so on."

    C 132:

          "It is known that every general thing is make up of particulars; and for that reason it is called general.  Whatever, therefore, is the character of the parts, such is that of the general; a garden in general is of such quality as its trees and their fruits; measows in general, of such quality as their crops of grass; fields in general, such as their grains, and plants and flowers; a ship in general is such as all its may parts.  The order among the parts and the quality of the parts makes the general more perfect or more imperfect."


          "That the goods of use which individuals perform subsist from the general good is known; for t each one derives its particular good of use from the general.  All things necessary to life, and also for occupations, and the wealth by which the neccessaries are procured, are from this source.  For by the general is meant not only the city and its community, But the country, and also the government.  But as these are subjects of wide extent, they will be more clearly set forth in what follows; for there are many varieties, which yet are in agreement with this law."

    C. 134:

          "II.  The goods of use which individuals perform, out of which the general good arises, are ministries, offices, callings, and various imployments.  By ministries are meant priestly offices, and the duties pertaining to them; by offices, various functions of a civil nature; by employments are meant such vocations as those of artificers, which are numerous; and by callings, various pursuits, businesses, and services.  Of these four the common weal or society consists."

    C. 135-136:

          "They who are in ministerial offices provide [for the community] that the Divine shall be there; the various civil functionaries, that there shall be justice there, and also morality, as well as industry, knowledge, and uprightness; the various workmen secure that there shall be the necessaries of life; and merchants, that there shall be the things necessary for the various occupations;  Soldiers, that there shall be protection; and these last especially, and also agriculturists, that there shall be a sufficiency of wealth.  

          "Every one may know that the general good is according to the good - the industries and pursuits - of every kind."


2.    The Heaven, three elements are present in uses, which "flow back and return from the Common into its use, and, as a result of use, to him who performs the use"

      I.    Necessities of life - food, clothing, habitation - freely given by the Lord; come into existence in a moment; correspond entirely to the use in which the angel is.\

      II.    Utilities - subordinate to those three - as sources of delight; various adornments for the table, garments, and house - beautiful according to use, and sumptuous according to its affection.

      III.    Things Delightful:  those that are [ahead] with his married partner, with friends and companions, in mutual and reciprocal love.   (Div.Love, xii)


3.    The Commonwealth (or Society) consists of:

      a)  Ministries - priestly offices and duties.

      b)  Functions - various offices of a civil nature.\

      c)  Employments - vacations such as those of artificers, etc. (Char. 134)


4.    Personelle of the Uses of Society (Doct. of Charity, 131-135)


      What is Divine .......................

      Justice  ..................................


      Necessaries of Live................

      Necessaries of Occupations...

      Necessaries of Protection......

      Sufficiency of Wealth.............


...............Magistrates, Judges

Priests,    Magistrates, Judges,            Civil Functionaries

Civil functionaries, Professional classes




..........Agriculturists, Soldiers


End of Chapter Seven