The whole and every part, even to the most minute of the natural world,
corresponds to spiritual things, and is significative of them, 258.
The spiritual things to which natural correspond assume another appearance
in the Natural, so that they are not distinguished, 258.
All things which correspond are likewise representative, and thereby
significative, 261, 216.
Heaven corresponds to the Divine Human of the Lord, and man as to each
and all things corresponds to heaven, 307.
In the external man there are things which correspond and agree with
the internal, and there are things which do not correspond and agree, 47.
Between the things which are in the internal and those which are in
the external man there is a correspondence, consequently they appear in
each under a different form, so that they can only be discerned by the
science of correspondences, 34.
The science of correspondences was the chief science among the ancients,
especially among the people of the East, and in Egypt more than in other
countries, also among the Gentiles, as in Greece and other places, 261.
But at this day it is among the sciences which are lost, particularly
in Europe, 261.
The Word is written by mere correspondences, and hence its internal
or spiritual sense, the nature of which cannot be known, and scarcely its
existence, without a knowledge of correspondences, 216.
TEXT PARAGRAPHS FROM
The New Jerusalem And Its Heavenly Doctrine
NJHD 258. In the Word there is a Spiritual Sense,
which is called the Internal Sense. No one can know what the internal sense
of the Word is, unless he knows what correspondence is, nos. 2895, 4322.
Each and all things down to the minutest singular, in the natural world,
correspond to spiritual things, and therefore are significative of these
things, nos. 1886-1889, 2987-3003, 3213-3227. The spiritual things to which
natural things correspond, present themselves in the Natural under a different
appearance, so as not to be recognized, nos. 1887, 2395, 8920. Scarcely
any one at the present day knows wherein the Divinity of the Word resides,
when yet it is in its internal, that is, in its spiritual sense, the existence
of which is unknown at the present day, nos. 2899, 4989. The mystical [element]
of the Word is nothing else than the contents of its internal or spiritual
sense, which treats of the Lord, His kingdom, and the Church, and not of
the natural things which are in the world, no. 4923. In most places, the
prophetic portions are not understood, and thus are of no use apart from
the internal sense; shewn by examples, nos. 2608, 8020, 8398. As for instance,
by the signification of the White Horse, in the Apocalypse, no. 2760 et
seq.; by that of the Keys of the Kingdom of the heavens which were given
to Peter (see Preface to Chapter xxii. of Genesis, no. 9410); by that of
flesh, blood, bread, and wine, in the Holy Supper, and thus why it was
instituted by the Lord (see no. 8602); further, by the signification of
the prophecies of Jacob concerning his sons, in Chapter xlix. of Genesis,
nos. 6306, 6333-6465; and by that of many prophecies concerning Judah and
Israel, which are not at all in keeping with that people, and do not harmonize
according to the sense of the letter, nos. 6333, 6361, 6415, 6438, 6444.
Besides innumerable other instances, no. 2608.
A summary of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word, nos.
1767-1777, 1869-1879. In each and all things of the Word there is an internal
sense, nos. 1143, 1984, 2135, 2333, 2395, 2495, 2619. These things do not
appear in the sense of the letter, but are nevertheless inwardly contained
in it, no. 4442.
NJHD 261. The Word was composed by means of correspondences,
and thus by means of representatives. As to the sense of the letter, the
Word was composed by means of pure correspondences, and thus by means of
such things as represent and signify the spiritual things which belong
to heaven and the Church, nos. 1404, 1408, 1409, 1540, 1619, 1659, 1709,
1783, 2179, 2763, 2899. This was done for the sake of the internal sense,
which is in each single thing, no. 2899; and thus for the sake of heaven,
since those who are in heaven do not understand the Word according to the
sense of the letter, which is natural; but according to the internal sense
which is spiritual, no. 2899. The Lord spoke through correspondences, representatives,
significatives, because He spoke from the Divine, nos. 9048, 9063, 9086,
10126, 10728. The Lord therefore spoke before the world, and before heaven,
nos. 2533, 4807, 9048, 9063, 9086. The things which the Lord spoke filled
the whole heaven, no. 4637. The historical things of the Word are representative;
the words are significative, nos. 1540, 1659, 1709, 1783, 2686. The Word
could not have been composed in any other style, in order that through
it there might be communication and conjunction with the heavens, nos.
2899, 6943, 9481. Those are much mistaken who despise the Word on account
of its apparently simple and uncouth style, and who think that they would
receive the Word if it had been written in another style, no. 8783. The
most ancient people also had a method and a style of writing by means of
representatives and significatives, nos. 605, 1756, 9942. The ancient wise
men were delighted with the Word, on account of the representatives and
significatives therein; from experience, nos. 2592, 2593. If a man of the
Most Ancient Church had read the Word, he would have seen clearly the things
which are in its internal sense, and obscurely those which are in its external
sense, no. 4493. The sons of Jacob were led into the land of Canaan, because
all the places therein had become representative from the most ancient
times, nos. 1585, 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516; and that thus there might be
written in it a Word, in which places might be named for the sake of the
internal sense, nos. 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516. But the Word was, nevertheless,
altered as to the external sense, for the sake of that nation, yet not
as to the internal sense, nos. 10453, 10461, 10603, 10604. In order that
it may be known what the correspondences and representatives in the Word
are, and what their quality, something shall also be said concerning them.
All things which correspond likewise represent and hence signify,
so that correspondences and representatives are one thing, nos. 2896, 2897,
2973, 2987, 2989, 2990, 3002, 3225. What correspondences and representatives
are; from experience and examples, nos. 2763, 2987-3002, 3213-3226, 3337-3352,
3472-3485, 4218-4228, 9280. The science of correspondences and representatives
was the chief science among the ancients, nos. 3021, 3419, 4280, 4748,
4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252; especially among the eastern nations,
nos. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10252, 10407; and in Egypt more than
elsewhere, nos. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407. Likewise among the
Gentiles, as in Greece and other places, nos. 2762, 7729. At this day,
however, that science is among the lost sciences, particularly in Europe,
nos. 2894, 2895, 2994, 3630, 3632, 3747-3749, 4581, 4966, 10252. This science,
nevertheless, is more excellent than all other sciences, because apart
from it the Word cannot be understood, nor can the signification of the
rites of the Jewish Church, which are treated of in the Word, be known;
neither can the nature of heaven be known, nor what the Spiritual is, nor
how the case is with spiritual influx into the Natural, with many other
things, no. 4280, and the passages cited above. All things which appear
among the angels and spirits are representative, according to the correspondences
of such things as belong to love and faith, nos. 1971, 3213-3226, 3349,
3475, 3485, 9481, 9574, 9576, 9577. The heavens are full of representatives,
nos. 1521, 1532, 1619. Representatives appear more beautiful and perfect,
in proportion as they are more interiorly in the heavens, no. 3475. The
representatives there are real appearances, because they are from the light
of heaven which is Divine Truth, and Divine Truth is the very Essential
of the existence of all things, no. 3485.
The reason why each and all things in the spiritual world are
represented in the natural world, is that the Internal clothes itself with
appropriate things in the External, whereby it presents itself visibly
and becomes apparent, nos. 6275, 6284, 6299. The end thus clothes itself
with suitable things so as to present itself as the cause in a lower sphere,
and afterwards as the effect in a sphere lower still; and when the end
through the cause becomes the effect, it becomes visible, that is, appears
before the eyes, no. 5711. This may be illustrated by the influx of the
soul into the body, namely, that the soul becomes clothed in the body with
such things as render it possible for things which the soul thinks and
wills to appear and to be presented visibly; when, therefore, the thought
flows down into the body, it is represented by such gestures and actions
as correspond, no. 2988. The affections, belonging to the mind, are represented
in the face, through the various expressions of the countenance, so as
to appear therein, nos. 4791-4805, 5695. Hence it is evident, that in each
and all things of nature, there is latent interiorly a cause and an end
from the spiritual world, nos. 3562, 5711; since those things which are
in nature are ultimate effects in which are prior things, nos. 4240, 4939,
5051, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216. Internal things are those which are represented,
and external things those which represent, no. 4292.
Since all things in nature are representative of spiritual and
celestial things, therefore, in ancient times, there were Churches wherein
all the externals which were rituals, were representative; wherefore those
Churches were called representative Churches, nos. 519, 521, 2896. The
Church which was instituted among the sons of Israel was a representative
Church, nos. 1003, 2179, 10149. All the rituals in it were externals which
represented the internal things belonging to heaven and the Church, nos.
4288, 4874. The representatives of the Church and of worship ceased when
the Lord came into the world, because the Lord laid open the internal things
of the Church, and because all the externals of the Church, in the highest
sense, had respect to Him, no. 4832.
NJHD 216. Of Body and Flesh.
The Lord's "flesh" signifies the Divine good
of His Divine love. that is, of His Divine Human (n. 3813, 7850, 9127,
10283). His "body" has a like signification (n. 2343, 3735, 6135). "Flesh"
in general signifies the will or proprium of man, which regarded in itself
is evil; but which when vivified by the Lord, signifies good (n. 148, 149,
780, 999, 3813, 8409, 10283). Hence "flesh" in the Word, is the whole man,
and every man (n. 574, 1050, 10283).
It is said here and in what follows, that
these things signify, because they correspond; for whatever corresponds,
signifies (see n. 2896, 2979, 2987, 2989, 3002, 3225). The Word is written
by mere correspondences, and hence its internal or spiritual sense, the
nature of which cannot be known, and scarcely its existence, without a
knowledge of correspondences (n. 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687). Therefore
there is a conjunction of heaven with the man of the church by the Word
(n. 10687). For further particulars on this head see in the work on Heaven
and Hell (n. 303-310), where it treats of the Conjunction of Heaven with
the Man of the Church by means of the Word.
NJHD 307. Of the Lord in heaven. The Lord appears
in heaven both as a sun and a moon; as a sun to those who are in the celestial
kingdom, and as a moon to those who are in the spiritual kingdom (n. 1053,
1521, 1529-1531, 3636, 3641, 4321, 5097, 7078, 7083, 7173, 7270, 8812,
10809). The light which proceeds from the Lord as a sun is the Divine truth,
from which the angels derive all their wisdom and intelligence (n. 1053,
1521-1533, 2776, 3138, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643,
3993, 4180, 4302, 4415, 5400, 9399, 9407, 9548, 9571, 9684). And the heat
which proceeds from the Lord as a sun is the Divine good, from which the
angels derive their love (n. 3338, 3636, 3643, 5215).
The Lord's Divine itself is far above His Divine in heaven (n. 7270,
8760). The Divine truth is not in the Lord, but proceeds from the Lord,
as light is not in the sun, but proceeds from the sun (n. 3969). Esse is
in the Lord, and existere from the Lord (n. 3938). The Lord is the common
center to which all the angels in heaven turn (n. 3633, 9828, 10130, 10189).
Nevertheless the angels do not turn themselves to the Lord, but the Lord
turns them to Himself (n. 10189); because the angels are not present with
the Lord, but the Lord is present with the angels (n. 9415). The Lord's
presence with the angels is according to their reception of the good of
love and charity from Him (n. 904, 4198, 4206, 4211, 4320, 6280, 6832,
7042, 8819, 9680, 9682, 9683, 10106, 10810). The Lord is present with all
in heaven, and also in hell (n. 2776, 3642, 3644). The Lord from His Divine
love wishes to draw all men to Himself into heaven (n. 6645). The Lord
is in a continual endeavor of conjunction with man, but the influx and
conjunction are impeded by the loves of man's proprium (n. 2041, 2053,
The Divine Human of the Lord flows into heaven, and makes heaven, and
there is no conjunction with the Divine itself in heaven, but with the
Divine Human (n. 3038, 4211, 4724, 5663). And the Divine Human flows in
with men out of heaven and through heaven (n. 1925). The Lord is the all
of heaven, and the life of heaven (n. 7211, 9128). The Lord dwells with
the angels in what is His own (n. 9338, 10125, 10151, 10157). Hence they
who are in heaven are in the Lord (n. 3637, 3638). Heaven corresponds to
the Divine Human of the Lord, and man as to each and all things, corresponds
to heaven, whence heaven in general is as one man, and is therefore called
the Greatest Man (n. 2988, 2996, 3624-3629, 3636-3643, 3741-3745, 4625).
The Lord is the only Man, and they only are men who receive the Divine
from Him (n. 1894). So far as they receive, so far they become images of
the Lord (n. 8547). The angels are forms of love and charity in a human
form, and this is from the Lord (n. 3804, 3735, 4797, 4985, 5199, 5530,
NJHD 47. FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA.
Of the internal and the external with man.
It is known in the Christian world,
that man has an internal and an external, or an internal man and an external
man; but it is little known what is the quality of the one and of the other
(n. 1889, 1940). The internal man is spiritual, and the external is natural
(n. 978, 1015, 4459, 6309, 9701-9709). How the internal man which is spiritual
is formed to the image of heaven; and the external which is natural to
the image of the world; and man was therefore called by the ancients a
microcosm (n. 3628, 4523, 4524, 6057, 6314, 9706, 10156, 10472). Thus in
man the spiritual world and natural world are conjoined (n. 6057, 10472).
Thence man is such that he can look up towards heaven, and down towards
the world (n. 7601, 7604, 7607). When he looks upwards, he is in the light
of heaven and sees thence; but when he looks downwards, he is in the light
of the world and sees thence (n. 3167, 10134). There is given with man
a descent from the spiritual world into the natural (n. 3702, 4042).
The internal man which is spiritual, and the
external man which is natural, are altogether distinct (n. 1999, 2018,
3691, 4459). The distinction is such as exists between cause and effect,
and between prior and posterior, and there is no continuity (n. 3691, 4154,
5145, 5146, 5711, 6275, 6284, 6299, 6326, 6465, 8603, 10076, 10099, 10181).
Consequently that the distinction is like that between heaven and the world,
or between the spiritual and the natural (n. 4292, 5032, 5620, 5639). The
interiors and exteriors of man are not continuous, but distinct according
to degrees, and each degree is terminated (n. 3691, 4145, 5114, 6326, 6465,
8603, 10099). He who does not perceive the distinctions of the interiors
and the exteriors of man according to degrees, and does not understand
the quality of those degrees, cannot comprehend the internal and the external
of man (n. 5146, 6465, 10099, 10181). The things of a higher degree are
more perfect than those of a lower degree (n. 3405). There are three degrees
in man answering to the three heavens (n. 4154).
The exteriors are more remote from the Divine with man, and therefore
they are respectively obscure, and of a general nature (n. 6451). And they
are also respectively not in order (n. 996, 3855). The interiors are more
perfect, because nearer to the Divine (n. 5146, 5147). In the internal
there are thousands and thousands of things, which in the external appear
as one general thing (n. 5707). Thence thought and perception is clearer
in proportion as it is interior (n. 5920). Hence it follows that man ought
to be in internals (n. 1175, 4464).
The interiors of the mind, with the man who
is in love and charity, are actually elevated by the Lord, and otherwise
they would look downwards (n. 6952, 6954, 10330). Influx and enlightenment
from heaven with man, is an actual elevation of the interiors by the Lord
(n. 7816, 10330). Man is elevated when he advances to spiritual things
(n. 9922). As far as man is elevated from externals towards interiors,
so far he comes into light, consequently into intelligence; and this is
what is meant by being withdrawn from sensual things, according to the
saying of the ancients (n. 6183, 6313). Elevation from the external to
the interiors, is like that from mist into light (n. 4598).
Influx from the Lord is through the internal
man into the external (n. 1940, 5119). Interiors can flow into exteriors,
but not the contrary; consequently that influx is spiritual and not physical,
namely, from the spiritual man into the natural, and not from the natural
man into the spiritual (n. 3219, 5119, 5259, 5427, 5428, 5477, 6322, 9109,
9110). The Lord from the internal, where there is peace, governs the external,
where there is turbulence (n. 5396).
The internal can see all things in the external,
but not the reverse (n. 1914, 1953, 5427, 5428, 5477). When man lives in
the world, he thinks from the internal in the external, consequently his
spiritual thought flows into his natural, and there presents itself naturally
(n. 3679). When man thinks well, it is from the internal or spiritual in
the external or natural (n. 9704, 9705, 9707). The external man thinks
and wills according to conjunction with the internal (n. 9702, 9703). There
is an interior and an exterior thought; the quality of the one and the
other (n. 2515, 2552, 5127, 5141, 5168, 6007). The thought and affection
in the internal is not perceived by man during his life in the world, but
only that which is in the external therefrom (n. 10236, 10240). But in
the other life externals are taken away, and man is then let into his own
internals (n. 8870). It then becomes manifest what is the quality of his
internals (n. 1806, 1807).
The internal produces the external (n. 994,
995). And the internal then invests itself with such things as enable it
to produce its effects in the external (n. 6275, 6284, 6299); and by which
it may live in the external (n. 1175, 6275). The Lord conjoins the internal
or spiritual man to the external or natural man, when He regenerates him
(n. 1577, 1594, 1904, 1999). The external or natural man is then reduced
into order through the internal or spiritual man, and is subordinated (n.
The external must be subordinate and subject
to the internal (n. 5077, 5125, 5128, 5786, 5947, 10272). The external
is so created, that it may serve the internal (n. 5947). The internal must
be lord, and the external its minister, and in a certain respect its servant
The external ought to be in correspondence
with the internal, that there may be conjunction (n. 5427, 5428, 5477).
What the quality of the external is when it corresponds with the internal,
and what when it does not correspond (n. 3493, 5422, 5423, 5427, 5428,
5477, 5511). In the external man there are things which correspond and
agree with the internal, and there are things which do not correspond and
agree (n. 1563, 1568).
The external has its quality from the internal
(n. 9912, 9921, 9922). How great the beauty of the external man is, when
it is conjoined with the internal (n. 1590). And how great its foulness
when not conjoined (n. 1598). Love to the Lord and charity towards the
neighbor conjoin the external man with the internal (n. 1594). Unless the
internal man be conjoined with the external, there is no fructification
The interiors successively flow into the exteriors,
even into the extreme or ultimate, and they there exist and subsist together
(n. 634, 6239, 9215, 9216). They not only flow in successively, but also
form in the ultimate what is simultaneous, in what order (n. 5897, 6451,
8603, 10099). All the interiors are held in connection from the first,
through the ultimate (n. 9828). Thence also in the ultimates are strength
and power (n. 9836). And therefore responses and revelations were made
from the ultimates (n. 9905, 10548). Thence also the ultimate is more holy
than the interiors (n. 9824). Hence also in the Word, "first and last"
signify all and every particular, thus the whole (n. 10044, 10329, 10335).
The internal man is open to him who is in
Divine order, but shut to him who is not in Divine order (n. 8513). There
is no conjunction of heaven with the external man without the internal
(n. 9380). Evils and the falsities of evil shut the internal man, and cause
man to be only in externals (n. 1587, 10492). Especially evils from the
love of self (n. 1594). The interiors are shut even to the sensual, which
is the ultimate, if the Divine is denied (n. 6564). With the intelligent
and learned of the world, who from the sciences confirm themselves against
the things of heaven and the church, the internal is shut more than with
the simple (n. 10492).
Because the internal man is in the light of
heaven, and the external in the light of the world, therefore they who
are in the external without the internal, that is, they with whom the internal
is shut, do not care for the internal things of heaven and the church (n.
4464, 4946). In the other life they cannot at all endure internal things
(n. 10694, 10701, 10707). They believe nothing (n. 10396, 10400, 10411,
10429). They love themselves and the world above all things (n. 10407,
10412, 10420). Their interiors, or the things which are of their thought
and affection, are vile, filthy, and profane, howsoever they may appear
in externals (n. 1182, 7046, 9705, 9707). The ideas of their thought are
material, and not at all spiritual (n. 10582). The quality further described
of those whose internal that looks heavenward is shut (n. 4459, 9709, 10284,
10286, 10429, 10472, 10492, 10602, 10683).
So far as the internal, which is spiritual,
is opened, so far truths and goods are multiplied; and so far as the internal,
which is spiritual, is shut, so far truths and goods vanish (n. 4099).
The church is in the internal spiritual man, because that is in heaven,
and not in the external without it (n. 10698). Hence the external church
with man is nothing without the internal (n. 1795). External worship without
internal worship is no worship (n. 1094, 1175). Concerning those who are
in the internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word; of those who
are in the external in which is the internal; and of those who are in the
external without the internal (n. 10683). The external without the internal
is hard (n. 10683).
The merely natural man is in hell, unless
he be made spiritual by regeneration (n. 10156). All who are in the external
without the internal, or with whom the spiritual internal is shut, are
in hell (n. 9128, 10483, 10489).
The interiors of man are actually turned according
to his loves (n. 10702). In each and all things there must be an internal
and an external that they may subsist (n. 9473).
"Above" and "high" in the Word, signifies
the internal (n. 1725, 2148, 4210, 4599). Thence in the Word higher is
interior, and lower is exterior (n. 3084).
NJHD 34. FROM THE HEAVENLY ARCANA.
SPIRITUAL truths cannot be grasped, unless the following UNIVERSALS
be known: I. Everything in the universe, in order to be anything, has relation
to good and truth, and their conjunction; and, consequently, to love and
faith, and their conjunction. II. With man there is will and understanding
and the will is the receptacle of good, and the understanding the receptacle
of truth, and everything with him has relation to these two things and
their conjunction, even as everything relates to good and truth and their
conjunction. III. There is an internal and in external man, and they are
distinct from each other like heaven and the world, and yet they ought
to make one, that man may be truly man. IV. There is a light of heaven
in which the internal man is, and a light of the world in which the external
man is; and the light of heaven is the very Divine Truth, from which comes
all intelligence. V. There is a correspondence between the things which
are in the internal man and those which are in the external man; and thus
they appear on either side under a different form, so that, they cannot
be discerned except by the science of correspondences. Unless these and
many other things are known, only incongruous ideas can be received and
formed concerning spiritual and celestial things; wherefore, apart from
the above universals, the scientifics and knowledges belonging to the external
man, can be only of small assistance to the rational man for all increase
of his understanding. From this it appears how necessary scientifics are.
Much has been said in the Heavenly Arcana concerning these universals.